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2024年天津成考专升本英语语法解析及练习

  2024年天津成考专升本英语语法有哪些?以下是天津成考网为大家整理的天津成考专升本复习资料,希望对大家有所帮助!

天津成考专升本

  2024年天津成考专升本英语语法解析及练习

  虚拟语气在各种从句的应用

  (一)主语从句的虚拟

  1. It is + adj. + that sb. (should) do

  常见的形容词有:necessary, important, strange, natural

  It's important that he take my advice. (他接受我的建议很重要。)

  2. It is + n. + that sb. (should) do

  常见的名词有:a pity, a shame, no wonder, one's wish

  It's a pity that he be so silly. (很遗憾他这么傻。)

  3. It is + done + that sb. (should) do

  常见的过去分词有:suggested, advised, demanded, requested, required, asked, ordered,

  proposed, decided, desired, insisted等。

  It's requested that she go home as soon as possible. (要求她尽快回家。)

  (二)宾语从句的虚拟

  1. 表命令,表建议,表要求的动词,后接宾语从句虚拟。虚拟的构成为(should) do。

  I advise that he stay at home. (我建议他呆在家里。)

  2. wish后接从句,虚拟的构成是往过去推一个时态。

  I wish I had watched the football match last night. (我真希望昨晚我看了那场足球赛。)

  注意以下几组词或短语用于虚拟语气中。

  1. as if, as though

  He speaks English as if he were a native speaker. (他讲英语就像是以英语为母语的人。)

  2. otherwise, but, even though

  He was ill. Otherwise he would have been there. (他病了,否则他会在那里的。)

  3. with, without, but for

  Without your help, I would have died two years ago. (没有你的帮助,我两年前就死了。)

  But for your help, I would have died two years ago. (要不是你的帮助,我两年前就死了。)

  4. would rather

  I'd rather you told me yourself. (我宁愿你自己告诉我。)

  5. It's time that

  It's time that you went to bed. (你该上床睡觉了。)

  It's time that you should go to bed. (你该上床睡觉了。)

  (三)表语从句中的虚拟

  在表语从句中,表示间接的命令,要求、请求、建议、决定等,主句中的主语通常是suggestion, proposal, request, orders, idea等。从句谓语形式是“(should)+动词原形”。

  如:His suggestion is that we (should) leave at once.(他的建议是我们立即离开。)

  名词从句部分:

  (一)that不可省略的情况:

  1. 介词后面的that不能省略:

  Peter is a good student except that he is sometimes careless. (彼得是个好学生,只是他有时粗心大意。)

  2. 当that引导的宾语从句位于句首时:

  That he ever did such a thing I don’t believe. (他做过这样的事我不相信。)

  3. 主句谓语动词和that从句之间有插入语,that不省略:

  She said that, if she failed, she would try again. (她说,如果她失败了,她会再试一次。)

  4. 当宾语从句有其他从属连词时,that不省略:

  He told me that if it was necessary they would work extra time. (他告诉我,如果有必要,他们会加班。)

  (二)that引导同位语从句和that引导定语从句的区别:

  同位语从句中的that是连词,不做成分,只连接主从句,不能省略;定语从句中的that要代替先行词在从句中做主语、宾语或者表语,并且做宾语时可以省略。从语义上看,同位语从句是对前面名词的解释、说明或内容;而定语从句时对前面名词的限定。

  We should consider the students’request that the school library provide more books on popular science. (我们应该考虑学生们要求学校图书馆提供更多科普书籍的要求。)(that引导同位语从句)

  only hope that he expressed was that they would do what they could to help the people in disaster areas. (他表达的唯一希望是他们将尽其所能帮助灾区人民。)(that引导定语从句)

  (三)要根据句子结构尤其是谓语动词判断从句的类型:

  What is known to us all is that the 2008 Olympic Games took place in Beijing. (我们都知道2008年奥运会在北京举行。)

  本句含有一个主语从句和一个表语从句,主句的动词为is。

  It is known to us all that the 2008 Olympic Games took place in Beijing.(众所周知,2008年奥运会在北京举行。)

  本句含有一个主语从句,主句的动词为is known to。

  As is known to us all, the 2008 Olympic Games took place in Beijing. (众所周知,2008年奥运会在北京举行。)

  本句含有一个定语从句,主句的动词为took place,as引导非限制性定语从句。

  (四)名词性从句的语序和语态:

  名词性从句均应用陈述语序,不能用疑问语序,其时态应该和主句时态保持一致。

  (五) 名词性从句中连词的省略:

  介词后的连词以及引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略。that引导名词从句(除了引导第一个宾语从句可省略外)都不可省略,但是引导定语从句并在从句中做宾语时可以省略。

  (六)名词性从句中it的使用:

  为了保持句子平衡,多数情况下,it作形式主语或形式宾语,将真正的主语或宾语从句后置。

  定语从句部分:

  关系代词有who, whom, whose, which, that, as,和关系副词when, where, why。

  (一)that指物时一般可与which互换,但在下列情况下,要用that而不用which。

  a. 先行词有all, everything等不定代词时,如,

  Everything (that) he did is wrong. (他所做的一切都是错的。)

  b. 先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等修饰时,如,

  I'll read all the books (that) you lend me. (你借给我的书我都读。)

  c. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时,

  This is the first letter (that) the boy has written. (这是这个男孩写的第一封信。)

  d. 先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时,如

  He is the very man (that) I'm looking for. (他就是我要找的那个人。)

  e. 只用which的情况

  在介词后或在非限定性定语从句中

  This is the book about which we have talked a lot. (这是我们聊了很多的书。)

  The book, which he gave me yesterday, is very interesting. (他昨天给我的那本书很有趣。)

  f. where和when作关系副词

  This is the room where I worked. (这是我工作的房间。)

  This is the room which I stayed in. (这就是我住过的房间。)

  I remembered the day when we lived there. (我记得我们住在那里的那一天。)

  I remembered the day that I spent there. (我记得我在那里度过的那一天。)

  g. as和which

  as 可以放于句首,而which 不可以

  As you know, he is good at English. (如你所知,他英语很好。)

  three of them 和three of which

  I have a lot of books, three of which are in Russian. (我有很多书,其中三本是俄文的。)

  I have a lot of books and three of them are in Russian. (我有很多书,其中三本是俄文的。)

  (二)“介词+关系代词”的情况:

  在固定短语中介词不能提前;判断介词的口诀:瞻前顾后看意义

  瞻前——看先行词;顾后——找从句动词;看意义——看全句表达含义

  (三)先行词在从句中充当地点状语时,关系词用where 或者介词加which;先行词在从句中充当时间状语时,关系词用when或者介词加which;先行词在从句中充当原因状语时,关系词用why或者for which。

  (四) 注意as和which在非限制性定语从句中代表主句所表达的内容的区别:

  位置不同:as从句放在主句前或后均可;而which从句只能放在主句后

  作用不同:as从句动词常常是see \know等,因而相当于插入语;which从句则在陈述一件事实。

  状语从句部分

  (一)while 是高考中的高频词,它既可引导时间状语从句,又可引导并列句,还可引导让步状语从句,表示“尽管”。

  (二)no matter wh- 与wh-ever 的联系及区别:

  no matter wh- 只引导让步状语从句,此时与wh-ever通用。wh-ever又可引导名词性从句,No matter wh-不能。

  No matter when / Whenever he comes back, he should be invited to the party. (无论他什么时候回来,都应该邀请他参加聚会。)

  (三)在条件,时间和让步从句中,用一般现在时表示一般将来时,用现在完成时表将来完成时,用一般过去时表过去将来时。在since 引导的时间状语从句中,动词一般都用一般过去时,而主句常用现在完成时。

  (四)状语从句的倒装一般有下面几种情况:

  ①否定词开头;

  ②so 加adj. 开头;

  ③as / though引导的让步状语从句。

  (五) 连词before小结:

  We had sailed four days before we saw land. (我们航行了四天才看到陆地。)(……才)

  We hadn’t run a mile before he felt tired. (我们还没跑完一英里,他就感到累了。)(不到……就)

  Please write it down before you forget it. (请在忘记之前把它写下来。)(趁……)

  Before I could get in a word, he had measured me. (我还没来得及插上一句话,他就给我量了尺寸。)(还没来得及)

  It will be/was…before…(要过多久才……)

  (六) because, since, as 引导原因从句的区别:

  because表达直接原因,语气最强,回答why;since通常放句首,译为“既然”;as引导不谈自明的原因,语气最弱;

  (七)as可以引导多种从句,要注意其中的区别。

  (八)till, until和not…until的区别;if和unless的区别。

  非谓语动词部分

  (一)动词不定式几点注意

  1.下列动词或动词短语后接不定式:agree, seem, appear, offer, happen, wish, hope, pay, expect, long, plan, intend, promise, pretend, decide, afford, manage, choose, be said to, would like to等。

  2. 不定式常用的句型:too…to do (太……而不能), …enough to do…(够……就能……), so as to do/in order to do(为了……),so…as to do/such…as to do(如此……结果……)。

  3. 不定式的三个结构:即否定结构、复合结构和疑问结构。

  否定结构为“not (never) to do”;

  疑问结构是特殊疑问词“how (what, which, who, whether…) to do”;

  复合结构是“for/ of +名词(或代词宾格)+ to do ”。

  4. let/ make/ have/ see/ hear/ notice/ observe/ listen to/ look at/ watch/feel这些动词带不定式作宾补时,省掉to, 若这些动词以被动形式出现时,应加上to。

  5. 当前面是the first, the second, the last, need, plan, time, chance, right,determination, ability, opportunity(机会),way时,一般用不定式作定语。

  6. but/ except + to do/ do 结构,要根据谓语动词来确定其后面的形式。当谓语动词是do, does, did时,but后用动词原形;谓语动词是其他动词时,but后用“to + 动词原形”的形式。

  7. 形容词后一般用不定式(除busy, worth 两个外)。

  You are sure to succeed. (你一定能成功。)

  He is busy preparing his lessons at present. (他现在正忙于预习功课。)

  8. 不定式作定语和表语时,有时需要在后面放上一个适当的介词。

  This is a bench to sit on.(这是用来坐的凳子。)

  This room is comfortable to live in. (这个房间住起来很舒适。)

  9. 在“主语+系动词+adj.+不定式”这个句型中,当主语是不定式的逻辑宾语时,不定式不用被动,不能在动词后再放宾语。

  The question is easy to answer. (这个问题很容易回答。)

  (question是answer的宾语,不能说:The question is easy to be answered. 也不能说:The question is easy to answer it .)

  习题:

  1.With the couple________in a nearby town,the house seems pretty empty most of the time.

  A.work

  B.to work

  C.working

  D.worked

  答案:C

  解析:考查with复合结构。work 和其逻辑主语the couple是主谓关系,表示现在的状况,所以用现在分词表主动。句意为:这对夫妻在附近镇上上班,他们的房子大部分时间都是空荡荡的。

  2.________to get a seat for the concert,he didn't mind standing in a queue all night.

  A.Determine

  B.To be determined

  C.Determined

  D.Being determined

  答案:C

  解析:过去分词作原因状语,“Determined to get a seat for the concert”相当于“Because he was determined to get a seat for the concert”。

  3.You should understand the traffic rule by now.You’ve had it ________ often enough.

  A.explaining

  B.to explain

  C.explain

  D.explained

  答案:D

  解析:此题考查“have sth.done”结构。

  4.He hurried to the station,only ________ that the train had left.

  A.to find

  B.finding

  C.found

  D.to be found

  答案:A

  解析:根据句意可知,空白处表示一个意想不到的结果,因此用“only+不定式”表示,又因句子的主语和find之间为主谓关系,因此用不定式的主动式。

  5.Now that we’ve discussed our problem,are people happy with the decisions ________?

  A.taking

  B.take

  C.taken

  D.to take

  答案:C

  解析:句意为:既然我们已经讨论了我们的问题,人们对我们做的决定满意吗? take与the decisions之间是动宾关系,故用过去分词表示被动。

  6.Yesterday a street­beggar bought a lottery ticket purposelessly,________him a millionaire overnight.

  A.making

  B.makes

  C.to make

  D.made

  答案:C

  解析:不定式作结果状语表示主语未曾预料到的结果。

  7.________ your composition carefully,some spelling mistakes can be avoided.

  A.Having checked

  B.Check

  C.If you check

  D.To check

  答案:C

  解析:分析句子结构可知,check的逻辑主语是you,与后面句子的主语some spelling mistakes不一致,因此不能用非谓语动词作状语,故使用从句因为主从句的主语可以一致,也可以不一致。

  8.________twice a year,whether it is a car or a bus or a truck,is the rule that every driver must obey in this city.

  A.Examining

  B.Examined

  C.Being examined

  D.Having been examined

  答案:C

  解析:句中缺少的是主语,分词不作主语,故排除A、B项;从整个句子意思来看examine需要用被动式且用其一般式即可。

  9.Little Bob is often educated by his parents to be good and friendly to anyone even if ________.

  A.attacking

  B.is attacked

  C.to be attacked

  D.attacked

  答案:D

  解析:even if attacked=even if he is attacked。

  10.Could you show me the TV set you’d like________?

  A.to have repaired

  B.repairing it

  C.to have it repaired

  D.to repair it

  答案:A

  解析:此处考查would like后跟不定式;其次考查have sth. done结构。

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